Bobby Zhou LAB
Bobby Zhou, Ph.D., Principal Investigator
A critical issue in the management of prostate cancer is the ability to determine which patients are at risk of disease recurrence after surgical treatment. This information is important in making decisions on whether or not a particular patient needs additional treatment such as radiation and hormonal therapy. Existing markers, such as tumor stage, histologic grade and completeness of tumor removal, can predict disease recurrence only to a certain extent. For this reason, there is a need for new predictors capable of distinguishing between more aggressive tumors and tumors that are less likely to progress or recur.
Recent research has demonstrated that genetic features of cancer may provide additional prognostic information. One of the most common genetic abnormalities found in prostate cancers is the loss of the short arm of the chromosome 8. However, the determination of whether or not this partial loss of chromosome 8 indeed occurred is complicated due to the technical problems associated with the existing methods of analysis for clinical specimens.
We have recently developed a technique called “counting alleles” that is specifically designed for analysis of chromosomal abnormalities in clinical specimens. The counting alleles approach allows researchers to overcome the problems of the currently available techniques and significantly enhances the accuracy of testing for chromosomal abnormalities.
We used the counting alleles method in a pilot study of 84 prostate cancer patients who underwent radical surgery. Our preliminary results suggested the existence of two subtypes of prostate cancer characterized by different clinical behavior. Cancers that have chromosome 8 with the short arm loss are more likely to recur if the tumor was not removed completely during surgery. By contrast, recurrence of tumors with the chromosome 8 intact appears to be more dependent on the histologic grade, while the completeness of the tumor removal did not appear to be as important. This observation is supported by our gene expression analysis, which indicated that cancers with and without chromosome 8 loss may have different disease progression mechanisms.
We are currently seek to confirm our initial observations by using a larger and more systematic study. We will further use the counting alleles method to identify the region on chromosome 8p that likely contains the specific gene responsible for the clinical behavior of prostate cancers. The completion of this study will provide valuable information for clinicians about prostate cancer prognosis after surgery. Our findings, if confirmed, will also improve our understanding of the mechanisms and genetic determinants of prostate cancer spread and progression.
Bobby Zhou, PhD
Assistant Professor, Winship Cancer Institute
Georgia Cancer Coalition Distinguished Cancer Scholar
American Cancer Society Research Scholar
Diana Schlong, MD
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Jeffy Pho MD
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HOW TO COPE WHEN YOUR PARENTS HAVE CANCER
Life is the most precious thing to human beings. Each
and every person across the world ensures they eat healthy meals and do a lot of
exercise to prevent their bodies from getting diseases and also boost their
life span. They are very many diseases that have led to lose of lives and caused
gaps in very many families.
Cancer is one of the most deadly diseases that have
cost many people’s lives. This disease basically occurs when cells in the body
start to grow abnormally. They are very many types of cancer such as breast
cancer, lung cancer and even prostate cancer. When it is detected at an early
stage it is curable but in most cases chances of survival for cancer patients
is very minimal because cancer treatments such as chemotherapies are very
expensive and most people cannot afford it.
In this section, we are going to review on how one
can cope when he finds out that his parents have cancer.
Probably we have heard or even seen how cancer
patients suffer and even end up dying. As a kid, the worst dream that can ever
haunt you is when you find out that your parents have been diagnosed with
cancer. I mean how would one even cope up on receiving this news?
When your parents have been diagnosed with cancer
this is the time to stop feeling sorry for yourself and show them how much you
love and care about them. No patient would ever feel happy when they notice you
are stressed and feel sorry for their illness.
Yes, cancer is a very terrible disease and it pains
even more seeing the people you love slowly dying because of this killer
disease. You may feel angry just let that pain out by crying. Don’t hide your
emotions because this will hurt you even more.
Sometimes these cancer patients are very stubborn
and most of them are afraid to start chemotherapy because of financial issues. This
is the time to encourage your parents at least to boost their life span. Make sure
you cherish and treasure every moment. Also try to be strong.
It is time to avoid this cancer word. Go out and
have fun together and do activities that will help you to forget that one is
actually suffering from that disease.
As a child whose parents have been diagnosed with
cancer, this is not the time to be secretive. It is time to let your relatives
know and be willing to accept any necessary help. Be it when they offer to pay
bills or even do the house chores; don’t feel shy about it because at this time
you will probably need to help your parents by accompanying them for their
This is the time to help your sick parents by
ensuring they have a positive attitude all the time. Not all of your parents’
friends have good intention towards them. If you notice that some of their
friends make them feel sad and lose hope in life then it is time to encourage
your parents to stay away from such people.
How about celebrations! Don’t you think this is the
time to make them feel loved and happy? Well, then you better start marking
your calendar and make sure you don’t miss out all those important events like anniversaries
and even birthdays. You can also make sure you motivate them by celebrating the
end of chemotherapy.
It is also very important to know the type of help your
parents need. At this point, you should accept your fate and start planning for
the future. You should organize a list of things you need to do. Like how will
you provide medical assistance and offer that physical care to your parents.
Make sure you have the doctor contact so that in
case of an emergency you can easily reach him. As much as you invest most of
your time taking care of your parents, nothing would make them happier seeing
you continuing with your normal life. So don’t hesitate to appoint a friend or
relative who can always help you take care of your parents while you are away
attending to other tasks.
Communication is the most important thing. Many cancer
patients find it hard to talk to their loved ones about this killer disease. It
is always important to make sure both parties involve themselves in an open
communication as this tends to reduce stress.
Acceptance is the best way to move forward. Although
it is not easy to deal with parents’ cancer diagnosis but we should try to make
them happy by building a strong relationship during this time.
The Ultimate Guide to Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy is one way of treating cancer that uses anticancer drugs to inhibit cell division. Chemotherapy was first developed in the beginning of the twentieth century but was not intended to be used as a form of cancer medication. Chemotherapy works throughout the whole body unlike radiation and surgery that only target specific areas. Chemotherapy works to inhibit cell division by destroying, controlling the spread and shrinking cancer cells to slow down the growth of tumors. There are different chemotherapy treatments I am going to discuss in The Ultimate Guide to Chemotherapy that include:
1. Alkylating agents
2. Plant Alkaloids
3. Topoisomerase inhibitors
4. Cytotoxic inhibitors
HOW YOU FEEL WHEN UNDERGOING THE DIFFERENT PARTS OF CHEMOTHERAPY TREATMENT
RISKS OF CHEMOTHERAPY
2. Kidney damage
3. Heart problems
How to Prevent Skin Cancer
Skin cancer is mainly caused by Ultraviolet (UV) radiations from the sun. Using a sunscreen lotion prevents the effects of these rays on the skin. An effective sunscreen which is highly recommended should have a Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of 15 and above. It should have ingredients such as oxybenzone, zinc oxide, and ecamsule. Water resistant sunscreen should be used when sunbathing or staying outdoors for longer. It should be applied regularly on the skin as well. During hot days, one should seek shade from the sun especially between 10 AM and 4 PM.
The arms, the neck, and the face are at risk of too much exposure to UV rays when driving. Window film is important for drivers. It should be able to shield away Ultraviolet A (UVA) and Ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. The use of a sunscreen lotion is also highly recommended, especially for long distance driving. Wearing sunglasses, long-sleeve tops and closing the car’s sunroof should be part of the UV protection regimen. For convertible cars, wear a wide-brimmed hat. Children should not stay outdoors in the sun for longer. Lastly, getting a skin examination by a physician is essential. Sun tanning should be examined for early diagnosis of any possible form of skin cancer.
Diagnosis Methods for Skin Cancer
Suspicious moles, lesions or any skin marks should be examined by a Dermatologist. These could be symptoms of skin cancer. The shapes and sizes as well as whether they bleed or itch are all important in diagnosing skin cancer. Dermatoscopy is the technique used in the diagnosis process. Inflammations in the lymph nodes can also be a symptom of skin cancer which has spread to the surrounding organs. If the symptoms really show the possibility of a skin cancer, a skin biopsy is done.
A skin biopsy is a detailed examination of the skin. There are different kinds of skin biopsies. A tangential biopsy involves the removal of a sample of the top skin layer from the affected area for examination. One should discuss with the doctor about the scarring of the skin in this procedure. The second type of biopsy is an FNA biopsy. In an FNA biopsy, lymph nodes are examined and any tumor removed for examination. An excisional and Punch biopsy is used in the further diagnosis of skin cancer. The two procedures sample the full thickness of the skin for examination. An optical biopsy is another skin biopsy which does not involve sample removal.
A CT scan follows the skin biopsy as an examination of any possible spread of cancerous cells to the surrounding organs. The sample from the skin biopsy procedure is taken for laboratory tests by a pathologist or a dermatopathologist. Some of the test which will follow include CGH and IHC tests. The examinations in this stage seek to know the stage of the tumor, the mutant cells, and the suitable treatment option. An X-ray test will follow to examine the conditions of the other body organs. The doctor can also do an MRI scan to check the condition of the brain and spinal cord and or blood tests to examine the LDH levels. All these examinations give an idea on the therapy options to be considered in the treatment of skin cancer.
Different Treatments for Skin Cancer
Once the examination has proved the presence of skin cancer, treatment begins. The suitable therapy options are chosen based on the stage of cancer, the age of the patient and the side effects. Surgery is used to treat cancer in the early stages. It can be an excision, amputation or a Mohs surgery. An excision is a minor surgery to remove skin cancer cells. All these operations are performed by a surgical oncologist. The third type of surgery is a Lymph node dissection. The side effects include limb swelling due to the accumulation of lymph fluids.
Chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and radiation therapy are the treatment option in the advanced stages of skin cancer. Chemotherapy is the use of drugs, injection or pills to kill the skin cancer cells. Some of these drugs are Cisplatin and Temozolomide. The treatment is administered in cycles to allow recuperation of the patient. Hair loss and infections are some of the side effects. Immunotherapy is a treatment procedure which involves the stimulation of the body immune system to fight the cancer cells. Radiotherapy uses strong x-rays to kills the tumors. It can be used together with chemotherapy.
How to Prevent Colon Cancer
With the advent of various types of diseases and illness,
the therapeutic field is continuously on the search for new ways of treating
them. Because of the propelled technology that the world offers, it is possible
to think of treatment alternatives and methods that are cutting edge and
Is it reasonable to say that you are worried concerning
colorectal cancer? Late phase colorectal cancer is a particularly lethal
disease that takes the lives of more than 50,000 every year in the United
States alone. What might be performed to shield yourself from this illness?
Here we focus on the protective ways you possibly can take to accomplish
optimum colon good health.
Colon Cancer is the malignancy in the large intestine, the organ
that temporarily houses wastes like feces before they are eliminated from the
body through defecation. It is amongst the most common diseases responsible for
ending several lives of individuals around 50 years of age. However, colon
cancer being a terminal illness doesn’t take away the way that its development
can be prevented through some healthy practices.
Everybody can be susceptible to colon cancer. Then again,
some individuals seemed to be born with some or the greater part of the risks
factors of this malignancy while others acquire or dispense themselves with the
said factors. Aside from age, the individual’s decision of nourishment,
lifestyle and prior polyps in the intestine also predispose a person to the
disease above. In particular, elevated cholesterol and low fiber eating regimen
increase an individual’s opportunity to create colon cancer. Carcinogens from
smoking are also one of the contributory factors that prompt colon malignancy.
However, intestinal polyps are most prone to progress into malignant excess and
are the major cause of colon cancer, especially when went with alternate
Knowing that individuals who are 50 years old or more are
high risks for colon cancer, it is recommended by doctors that this age bunch
undergoes early location diagnostic exam like a colonoscopy. This will help in
determining the presence of polyps that is the major precursor of most colon
cancer cases. Thus, once polyps are discovered present, an appropriate surgical
intercession such as polyp removal can be immediately done to prevent progress
of the polyps additionally into malignant tissues.
With regards to eating fewer carbs, high fiber and low
cholesterol admission are very suggested by experts to prevent colon cancer.
Cholesterol admission is usually associated with the generation of
free-radicals which are distinguished as carcinogenic while fiber promotes fast
and standard elimination of wastes from the body.
The normal metabolism of the body is responsible for the
creation of free-radicals. However, the destruction caused by free-radicals are
controlled and even prevented by the regular antioxidants like glutathione. In
this manner, different aspects that may cause an imbalance between free
radicals and antioxidants’ level such as high blood cholesterol must be evaded
entirely. Cholesterol molecules are susceptible to be transformed into
free-radicals because free-radicals may tie and steal ions from them.
Henceforth, it is legitimate to say that high blood cholesterol level is
directly proportional to the measure of
free-radicals in the body. This means an increase in cholesterol level
increases the free radicals level as well and vice versa.
Another risk factor for contracting colon cancer is smoking.
50 out of 4000 chemicals from cigarette or tobacco smoke have been determined
carcinogenic. Smoking is equivalent to specifically instilling free-radicals
into the body, which intensifies cellular destruction in the respiratory tract
and furthermore in other body organs such as the colon. In these respect, each
who wants to trim colon cancer risk factors has a decision to surrender smoking
now and never start smoking by any means.
As a rule, prevention of colon cancer is dependent on the
determination of its possible inception such as the risk factors mentioned
earlier. At the point when this beginning is recognized, appropriate
interventions can be set up to maintain a healthy colon. The elimination of
these factors or decrease of exposure of individuals to them reduces the risk
of building up the disease and increases the possibility of preventing colon
The data offered in this thing isn’t a replacement for
professional treatment and should not be used for testing or give treatment to
a restorative issue or illness. It is best to check with your health provider
should you have or presume you may have a medical issue.
The Different Treatments and Diagnosis Methods for Detecting Breast Cancer
Breast Cancer starts when the cells of breast
start growing out of control. These cells usually get the form of tumor that
can be seen on X-ray or felt as a lump. The tumor is harmful because the
affected cells spread to distant areas of the body. Breast Cancer predominantly
occurs in the women but men can also suffer from breast cancer, too. Breast
Cancer can start anywhere in the breast. But mostly breast cancer occurs in the
ducts that carry milk to nipple ( ductal cancers). Some breast cancer starts in
the glands that make breast milk and this breast cancer is known as lobular
cancers. There are other breast cancers available but those are less common.
Sarcomas and Lymphomas are a small number of a cancer which usually begins in
other tissues in the breast, but these two are not thought as a breast cancer.
Breast Cancer creates the cause of lump in the breast, not all do. Many breast
cancers can find on screening mammograms which can easily identify cancers at
an earlier stage or before symptoms develop. We are also needed to understand
that most breast lumps are not cancer. Non-cancer breast tumors are unusual
growth and those tumors don’t spread out of the breast and they are also not
The Early Detection of Breast Cancer
Finding cancer at the beginning stage is the
most essential part of any patient’s life because it helps to prevent somebody’s
death from breast cancer. Breast Cancer which is found at the early stage when
it is not spread all around the body, is easier to do successful treatment.
Getting regular screening tests can help to find breast cancer at the beginning
stage. Screening test is the best way to find breast cancer in the starting.
What are screening tests?
Screening test is the test which helps people
to get know about the breast cancer at the beginning. This test main goal is to
find breast cancer before it is got worse. Screening test applies on those
people who don’t have any symptoms of breast cancer but they think that they
can have it. If anybody finds the breast cancer during this test, it means that
the cancer has just started in that person’s breast.
Screenings recommendation for
women at average breast cancer risk
question arises that how does somebody know that she/he need to do screening
test? For screening purpose, a woman should consider when she had already
breast cancer in the past or a genetic mutation known to increase risk of
Breast self-exam and clinical breast exam
also need to do self-exam for detecting that they are having a breast cancer or
not. The main symptom of breast cancer is lump. If a woman feels pain and
unusual activities in her breast during the bathing and dress then she should immediately
visit to her doctor. Women must familiar with their breasts how their breasts
normally look and how it looks during the pain. It creates clean differences.
Second major thing is that if somebody is not getting any proper report from
normal clinic but still feels the pain then he/she should move t higher
Different treatments for breast cancer
Surgery is the one of the treatments for breast
cancer. In this treatment, doctor removes the tumor from the breast but risk is
high. So before the surgery, A patient must know about the consequences after
the surgery. So a patient really needs to talk his/her doctor before taking
Second treatment is radiation therapy.
Radiation therapy is the treatment in which doctor uses radiation to destroy cancer
cells. In this treatment, doctor targets a particular part of body and gives
there high beam radiation which helps to kill cancer cells. In the most cases
of cancer, doctor uses this treatment after the surgery for killing left cancer
cells but it can also use it before the surgery. But this treatment has cause also. While
killing the cancer cells, it also injures healthy cells which create lots of
therapy is the another different way for killing breast cancer. In some sector,
we find that tumor takes hormone for it growth. So in this particular
treatment, doctor blocks hormones which helps to prevent breast cancer.
How to Detect and Treat Testicular Cancer
Cancer that is produced and formed in the tissues of one or both of the testicles is known as testicular cancer.
In the vast majority of the scenarios, testicular cancer starts in the germ cells. The testicular cancer tumor can be of 2 sorts, seminomas and nonseminomas depending in transit they develop and their spread mode. Non – seminomas develop and spread significantly quicker contrasted with the seminomas, and hence both sorts are treated by different techniques. At the moment when a testicular tumor has both non-seminoma and seminoma cancer cells, they are treated as a non-seminoma case.
How is testicular cancer diagnosed?
Testicular Cancer Treatment Options
Factors influencing treatment alternatives
A Basic Guide to Nootropics and How They Deliver The Major Impact
The brain may lack the ability to memorize things in the past, or learn new things, due to various factors.
The aging process may be the main cause. Unfortunately, younger people, these days, can’t easily memorize simple things, nor even comprehend about new things that they are learning. As a matter of fact, it occurs to millions of people during the past decade. This is especially for busy people with too many activities to accomplish. Here, the brain is overloaded, where is neurotransmitters–as the main controller of the brain–cannot function perfectly. It is true that lack of oxygen and water contribute to the decreasing brain function. But, it is the short-term cause. What the brain needs is the best intake, which can boost the neurotransmitter to increase the ability of brain to learn, memorize and delivers good mood. This is the real function of nootropics, the most reliable supplement for the brain.
An extremely popular nootropic, phenibut, is sold by Phenibut Hero and it is an extremely quality product.
The reliability of nootropics is already scientifically proven by many scientists worldwide, as they ensure that nootropics are not only effective to boost the brain’s potential, but it is also safe and risk-free. For more than five decades, there is no other drug or supplement which can rival the main features of nootropics in increasing the brain’s potential.
We ‘demand’ our brain to focus perfectly, but we, somehow, take its basic need for granted. The brain needs the right vitamin to enhance its main cognitive ability. Basically, nootropics works by supplying the oxygen to the brain for its maximum ability to focus well, boost the mood and memorize in a better way. Nootropics contain some proteins to stimulate the brain cells to grow impulsively, which results into improved verbal communication.
The Long Term Benefits of Nootropics
There has been so many drugs or supplements which claim to be the best brain supplement. Yet, nootropics, so far, is still proven to be the most effective one, thanks to its long-term impact. Nootropics doesn’t push the brain the work vigorously at time, in which it can cause the brain fatigue and dysfunction, that leads to the brain damage after long term usage. On the other hand, nootropics support the brain function by improving the neurotransmitters function in preventing some brain disorders by the aging process. What makes nootropics special is its ability in preventing any condition that cause the brain to lose its ability in learning, focusing, and memorizing.
Nootropics may disappoint anyone, who expects a magical result. There are supplements which claim that they can boost the brain’s maximum stimulation. Many people misunderstand about the basic definition of the brain supplement, in which they think that such supplements can increase their brain’s maximum function. They might feel good, temporarily. But, their major drawback is the risk of brain fog, which results in dementia when it is left untreated.
It means, nootropics drugs are safe with doctors prescription. But, it is not recommended consuming nootropics regularly for the long term. Regardless of its low level of toxicity, it still delivers some health risk for the continuous intake.
Nootropics And Its Major Impact
As it was mentioned before, nootropics are far from magical drugs that many people might have thought before. It is true that nootropics have major impacts in increasing the brain’s maximum function. But, it only applies when users also consume healthy foods and maintain their body condition. Nobody should expect to get the most of nootropics when they take the importance of nutrition intake for granted.
What would happen when a person really counts on nootropics to boost his or her brain function? First, he or she may become very addicted to nootropics, whenever he or she feels that it is challenging for him or her to focus. Immoderate intake of nootropics may deliver the expected result, for once, when users feel energized for the whole day The higher frequency of nootropics intake without any medical advice leads to hazardous risks.
Branch of Nootropics
There are various kinds of nootropics drugs which are sold worldwide, whether in brick-and-mortar drug stores or e-commerce websites. It is always recommended getting medical advice, before buying the right ones. Some nootropics work instantly, while others may deliver slow effects, for example in two days or even a week. Medical advice is strongly advised before consuming any nootropics drugs.